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References for "The Changing Role of the Physician".   Oct. 23st, 2012

1) Medicare and Medicaid Programs, Reform of Hospital and Critical Access Hospital Conditions of Participation. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Federal Register. (42 CFR Parts 482 and 485) 2012;77(95):29038. Accessed Sep. 3, 2012, at   

"We believe that adding the requirement for hospitals to have a medical staff member serve on the governing body will build in an important element of continuity and ensure regular communication between a hospital’s governing body and its medical staff(s), particularly in light of our decision to permit a single governing body for hospitals in multihospital systems."

"We also believe that requiring a hospital’s governing body to include a medical staff member will directly address a widely voiced concern for stronger communication between a hospital governing body and the medical staffs of its member hospitals."

2) American Hospital Association, CMS reconsidering board medical staff requirement. June 18, 2012. Accessed Sep. 3, 2012, at 

3) Abelson R. Hospital groups will get bigger, Moody’s predicts. The New York Times. March 8, 2012. Accessed Sep. 3, 2012, at

4) Weiner, SM and Niewenhous, MD. Private Equity's Interest in Non-Profit Hospitals: What's Next? HealthLeadersMedia. Feb. 14, 2011. Accessed Sep. 3, 2012, at

5) Caramenico A. Hospital Groups grow with insurer, private equity partners. FierceHealthCare. Mar 8, 2012. Accessed Sep. 3, 2012, at
6) Gaynor, M, Town R. The impact of hospital consolidation – Update. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. June 2012. Accessed Sep. 3, 2012, at
7) Medicare Program, Medicare Shared Savings Program: Accountable Care Organizations. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Federal Register. (42 CFR Part 425) 2011;78(212):67819. Accessed Sep. 3, 2012, at 

"The governing body members shall have a fiduciary duty to the ACO and must act consistent with that fiduciary duty."

8) Comment on: Launching Accountable Care Organizations — the Proposed Rule for the Medicare Shared Savings Program. April 21, 2011. Accessed Sep. 3, 2012, at 
9) Kocher R, Sahni NR Hospitals' race to employ physicians--the logic behind a money-losing proposition. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(19), 1790-3. Accessed Sep. 3, 2012, at
10) Kavanagh KT: Health care integration: will physicians lose their voice? Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons, June 2011. PMID: 22315908 Accessed Sep. 3, 2012, at 
11) Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, Report to Congress. March 2012, p. xiv. Accessed Sep. 3, 2012, at .

"Medicare paid about 80 percent more for a 15-minute office visit in an OPD than in a freestanding physician office."