Health Watch USA Logo COVID-19 Resources & Publications

COVID-19 Resources & References

Back To COVID-19 Home Page

Transcript Of George W. Bush

Pandemic Response

Resources To Track Pandemic

Impact on Children
-- Heart DIsease
-- Spread
-- Ventilation Schools
-- Long COVID
-- Immunological Response
Vaccine & Immune Imprinting
Immune Hypofunction & Dysfunction
-- Heart Disease
-- Central Nervous System

Development of a Definition of Postacute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection  
 Among 2231 participants first infected on or after December 1, 2021, and enrolled within 30 days of infection, 224 (10% [95% CI, 8.8%-11%]) were PASC positive at 6 months.”    
More than 75% of nation’s long COVID patients hadn’t been hospitalized for initial illness  

Impact of COVID on Children 

2022, May. At Least Half a Million U.S. Kids Are Struggling With Long Covid
They seem to get long Covid less than adults, but Daniel Griffin, an infectious diseases expert at Columbia University who treats Covid patients and hosts a weekly podcast update on the disease, said that about 5% to 10% of kids who’ve had the virus come down with long-term symptoms.

Children Heart Disease               Back to Top
Mid- and Long-Term Atrio-Ventricular Functional Changes in Children after Recovery from COVID-19
Journal of Clincial Medicine "Our findings shed new light on the cardiac impact of COVID-19 in paediatric age. In fact, we showed for the first time that 60% of children who recovered from asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19 still exhibit mild subclinical systolic cardiac impairment after an average follow-up of 148 ± 68 days from disease onset. This subtle impairment in myocardial deformation was worse in the LV apical region of COVID-19 children who recovered during the second wave compared to the first wave."
Children Spread               Back to Top
On the role of different age groups in propagating Omicron epidemics in France
Interesting Preprint (not yet peer reviewed) which found "Children aged 10 to 19 yrs. played the greatest relative role in propagating Omicron epidemics, particularly when schools were open, followed by children aged 0-9y and adults aged 20-29y, as well as adults aged 30-49y." 

"...the relative risk (RR) statistic that measures, for each age group, the change in the proportion of that age group among all COVID-19 cases...For the Summer wave (June 27 – Aug. 21), the highest RR estimate belong to children aged 0-9y (RR=1.61 (1.13,2.30)) followed by children aged 10-19y (RR=1.46 (0.72,2.93)) and adults aged 20-29y (RR=1.43 (0.91,2.23)). For the Autumn wave (Sep. 18 – Nov. 12), the highest RR estimate belonged to children aged 10-19y (RR=1.64 (0.72,3.73)), followed by adults aged 30-39y (RR=1.35 (0.8,2.27)) and 20-29y (RR=1.21 (0.66,2.22))."
Contact tracing study in South Korea, where 10 to 19 year olds most likely to spread COVID-19 to household contacts. The least likely was the age group 0 to 9. However, as early as 2020 it was observed that children can spread the disease. 
Primary school teachers were 67% more likely to develop SARS-CoV-2 infections than other occupations. 
The Public health Agency of Sweden on Dec 18, 2020. This report shows that elementary, grammar and nursery schools comprised 75% of the non-Medical COVID-19 outbreaks in Sweden.
And a new report which shows primary school teachers were the most likely occupation to catch COVDI-19 -- relative risk of 1.67 . 
Another Report Finding Teachers are the profession with the highest sickenss absences. 
Ventilation Schools
SARS-CoV-2 transmission with and without mask wearing or air cleaners in schools in Switzerland: A modeling study of epidemiological, environmental, and molecular data "Daily average aerosol number concentrations without interventions were 177 ± 109 1/cm3 and decreased by 69% (95% CrI 42% to 86%) with mask mandates and 39% (95% CrI 4% to 69%) with air cleaners." 
Italian study shows ventilation can cut school COVID cases by 82%
"With applications guaranteeing a complete replacement of the air in a classroom 2.4 times in an hour, infections were reduced by 40%. They were lowered by 66.8% with four air replacements per hour and by 82.5% with six air replacements, the study showed."  

Children-Long COVID                Back to Top

1. At Least Half a Million U.S. Kinds Have Long COVID 
2. Germany - Controlled Study. Long COVID occures in Children Less Frequently than adults. Children post COVID were 30% more likely than controls to have long term symptesm (2.28 times more likly to have fatigue and exhaustion)      
3.   Symposium for professionals and families on the current state of pediatric long COVID. April 21-22, 2023 
4.  Pereira SMP, Mensah A, Nugawela MD, et al. Long COVID in Children and Youth After Infection or Reinfection with the Omicron Variant: A prospective Observational Study.
"12-16% infected with Omicron met the research definition of long COVID at 3 and 6 months after infection, with no evidence of difference between cases of first-positive and reinfection (pchi-square=0.17)." The Journal of Pediatrics.  

Immunological Response

Tracking the clonal dynamics of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in children and adults with mild/asymptomatic COVID-19 - ScienceDirect
"This was associated with the development of robust CD4+ memory T cell responses in adults but not children. These data suggest that rapid clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in children may compromise their cellular immunity and ability to resist reinfection."  

Masks               Back to Top

Masks Protect Others:  "Mask mandates decreased the detection of SARS-CoV-2 aerosols by 69%" 

Surgical masks reduce COVID-19 spread, large-scale study shows
29 point difference in mask usage between arms, 11% difference in repiratory symptoms from COVID-19.   
Despite the findings of a Cochrane Study, masks do work, 
SARS-CoV-2 transmission with and without mask wearing or air cleaners in schools in Switzerland: A modeling study of epidemiological, environmental, and molecular data "Molecular detection of airborne and human SARS-CoV-2 indicated sustained transmission in schools. Mask mandates were associated with greater reductions in aerosol concentrations than air cleaners and with lower transmission." 
Effectiveness of Face Mask or Respirator Use in Indoor Public Settings for Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Infection — California, February–December 2021
"..continuous use of N95 and KN95 respirators cut the odds of infection by 83 percent compared to 66 percent with surgical masks."[]#contribAff  
Why the CDC’s New Mask Guideline Proposal May Actually Imperil Frontline Worker 
Behavioral factors and SARS-CoV-2 transmission heterogeneity within a household cohort in Costa Rica
The estimated household secondary attack rate is 34% (95% CI 5–75%). Mask wearing by the index case is associated with the household transmission risk reduction by 67% (adjusted odds ratio = 0.33 with 95% CI: 0.09–0.75) and not sharing bedroom with the index case is associated with the risk reduction of household transmission by 78% (adjusted odds ratio = 0.22 with 95% CI 0.10–0.41).  
SARS-CoV-2 transmission with and without mask wearing or air cleaners in schools in Switzerland: A modeling study of epidemiological, environmental, and molecular data "Daily average aerosol number concentrations without interventions were 177 ± 109 1/cm3 and decreased by 69% (95% CrI 42% to 86%) with mask mandates and 39% (95% CrI 4% to 69%) with air cleaners." 
Boulos L, Curran JA, Gallant A, Wong H, Johnson C, Delahunty-Pike A, Saxinger L, Chu D, Comeau J, Flynn T, Clegg J, Dye C. Effectiveness of face masks for reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2: a rapid systematic review. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2023 Oct 9;381(2257):20230133. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2023.0133. Epub 2023 Aug 23. PMID: 37611625; PMCID: PMC10446908. 

"Seven observational studies found that respirators were more protective than surgical masks, while five found no statistically significant difference between the two mask types. Despite the ROB, and allowing for uncertain and variable efficacy, we conclude that wearing masks, wearing higher quality masks (respirators), and mask mandates generally reduced SARS-CoV-2 transmission in these study populations."

Cash-Goldwasser S, Reingold AL, Luby SP, Jackson LA, Frieden TR. Masks During Pandemics Caused by Respiratory Pathogens—Evidence and Implications for Action. JAMA Netw Open. 2023;6(10):e2339443. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.39443 

"During the next epidemic or pandemic caused by a respiratory pathogen, decision-makers will need to rely on existing evidence as they implement interventions. High-quality studies have shown that use of face masks in the community is associated with reduced transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and is likely to be an important component of an effective response to a future respiratory threat."

Vaccine & Immune Imprinting             Back to Top
Immune imprinting and SARS-CoV-2 vaccine design
Immune boosting by B.1.1.529 (Omicron) depends on previous SARS-CoV-2 exposure 

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Vaccine-Induced Immune Imprinting Reduces Nucleocapsid Protein Antibody Response in SARS-CoV-2 Infection
How your first COVID-19 vaccination could 'hurt' subsequent boosters
Immune imprinting makes some Covid-19 booster shots less effective, Chinese scientists find
Immune Hypofuction & Dysfunction             Back to Top
ACE2-independent infection of T lymphocytes by SARS-CoV-2
Immunological dysfunction persists for 8 months following initial mild-to-moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection
SARS-CoV-2 Actively Infects And Kills Lymphoid Cells
How COVID-19 alters the immune system
Examining COVID-19's long-term effects on the innate immune system  
Long COVID  
Cardiac Effects                 Back to Top
Is COVID-19 actually a disease of the blood vessels? New research could help explain odd symptoms from strokes to purple toes - June 4, 2020. (This is pre-Vaccine)
The Core Lesson of the COVID-19 Heart Debate - Sept. 21, 2020.
Heart attack deaths in young adults rose during first two years of COVID-19 pandemic
Young people are more likely to die of heart attacks post-COVID, study finds. But why?
Heart disease after COVID: what the data say
COVID-19 patients retain elevated risk of death for at least 18 months after infection, finds large-scale study
Cardiovascular Research -
COVID and the Heart: It Spares No One
John Hopkins:
Fatal heart attacks have surged in Australia. Here’s why
Heart-disease risk soars after COVID — even with a mild case
Myocarditis: COVID-19 is a much bigger risk to the heart than vaccination
The Conversation:
Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2023 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association
How COVID-19 Changes the Heart—Even After the Virus Is Gone
Central Nervous System Effects                 Back to Top
Assessment of Cognitive Function in Patients After COVID-19 Infection
SARS-CoV-2 infection and persistence in the human body and brain at autopsy
Causal Effects of COVID-19 on Structural Changes in Specific Brain Regions: A Mendelian Randomization Study
Preprint Lancet:
The haunting brain science of long Covid
Detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins and genomic sequences in human brainstem nuclei
Nature NPI Parkinson's Disease:
Brain Structure, Widespread Connectivity Changes Seen With Long COVID
MedPage Today:
What brains could teach scientists about the lasting effects of Covid-19
2022, Oct: The neurobiology of long COVID "COVID-19 may affect the central nervous system in (at least) six main ways.  



2022 Resources On COVID-19 Infections
And Coronavirus


2021 Resources On COVID-19 Infections
And Coronavirus


2020 Resources On COVID-19 Infections
And Coronavirus